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Extreme: Humans at Home in the Cosmos
Edited by Debbora Battaglia, David Valentine, and Valerie A. Olson
Volume 85, #4
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Cumulative Causation Unbounded: Network Expansion in Rural and Urban Migration Centers
Tamar Diana Wilson, University of Missouri, St. Louis
ABSTRACT — There is a tendency in the migration literature to see rural communities that send many migrants to the United States as closed communities. The theory of cumulative causation rests on the assumption of bounded communities and posits a saturation point at which no more migration from the community occurs. The implication that eventually there will be no further migration from a given community ignores the existence of networks that bind people from nearby or even distant communities which can be tapped by a potential migrant and the phenomenon of internal migration to dynamic rural centers. Migration networks also expand in urban centers through marriages of a family’s offspring that bring people without established ties in the US into intimate contact with people who do have these ties. [Keywords: Transnational migration, cumulative causation, network expansion, non-bounded communities, family based social capital]
In The Name of Transparency: Gender, Terrorism, and Masonic Conspiracies in Italy
Lilith Mahmud, University of California, Irvine
ABSTRACT — In 1993 Italian newspapers published the membership lists of all major Masonic Orders in the country. The lists were part of an ongoing campaign waged in the name of transparency against the secrecy of Freemasons, long suspected of political conspiracies. The lists, however, omitted women’s names, thus reifying Freemasonry as a brotherhood of men. Drawing on 18 months of fieldwork among Freemason men and women in Italy, I examine historically and ethnographically the significance of women’s absence from the lists, the aftermath of those publications for Masonic experiences in Italy, and the paradoxes of transparency as a gendered discourse. [Keywords: Freemasonry, Italy, gender, transparency, secrecy, conspiracy, terrorism, P2]