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Everyday Experiences of the State in the Margins: Memory, Belonging, Violence
INTRODUCTION: Localizing the State
Mariane C. Ferme, University of California, Berkeley
Commemorating from the Margins of the Nation: El Salvador 1932, Indigeneity, and Transnational Belonging
Robin Maria DeLugan, University of California-Merced
ABSTRACT — Recent public commemorations in the US and El Salvador for the 1932 state-sanctioned killing of thousands of indigenous Nahuat in western El Salvador involve Native communities and diasporic Salvadorans who thereby bring attention to the continued marginalization of Native people and cultures. Salvadorans in the US express personal and collective indigeneity while contributing to memory and justice efforts in Izalco, the epicenter of the 1932 violence. Multi-sited ethnography illustrates how Native populations and diasporic others, two publics at the margins of the nation-state, engage popular social memory to acknowledge and commemorate a national tragedy in a process that reconfigures and remakes the meaning of national belonging. [Keywords: Social memory, indigeneity, nation-state, diaspora, El Salvador, 1932]
From “Contested” Multiculturalism to “Localized” Multiculturalism: Chinese and Vietnamese Youth in Osaka, Japan
Yuko Okubo, University of California, Berkeley
ABSTRACT — This article examines how everyday experiences of certain subjects at the margins of the state illustrate the gap between official discourses and practices of multiculturalism, and unofficial everyday interpretations or reactions to the former. For this purpose, the article discusses Chinese and Vietnamese youth who experienced educational programs under the framework of “multiculturalism and coexistence” (tabunka kyōsei) in primary school in Osaka, Japan. How do activists and teachers negotiate multiculturalism, and how do these youth remember their experience? The gap found here reshapes or contests state practices and discourses, and thus, illustrates a creative space within state and society. [Keywords: Multiculturalism, Japan, everyday practice, subject positions, activists, teachers, immigrant youth]
After the Peace: The Contagion of Violence at the Margins of the Guatemalan State
Krisjon Rae Olson, University of Washington
ABSTRACT — For many of the international experts, humanitarian professionals, and newly appointed state workers determined to implement peace in Guatemala between 1996 and 2006, the imperative was clear: prevent further killing and protect human lives. For many Guatemalans, who continued to live with death as a part of their ordinary lives, this sort of peace was simply unimaginable. This article illuminates how powerful institutional forms of the state—dirty wars, the work of activism and impunity, and neoliberal reform—reconfigure deadly struggles and their aftermath. I conclude that an alternative way to evaluate peace processes is to consider their relationship to life, after the peace, where violent death is accepted as a condition of being. [Keywords: Guatemala, violence, Peace Accords, state, humanitarianism, social reform, post-conflict Ixil]
Everyday Experiences of the
State in the Margins: Memory, Belonging, Violence
Volume 86, #4